Added: Kadie Ide - Date: 06.07.2021 00:54 - Views: 19286 - Clicks: 4810
Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Objectum-sexuality OS is a sexual orientation which has received little attention in the academic literature. We tested 34 OS individuals and 88 controls, and provide the first empirical evidence that OS is linked to two separate neurodevelopmental traits - autism and synaesthesia.
We show that OS individuals possess ificantly higher rates of diagnosed autism and ificantly stronger autistic traits compared to controls, as well as a ificantly higher prevalence of synaesthesia, and ificant synaesthetic traits inherent in the nature of their attractions.
Our suggest that OS may encapsulate autism and synaesthesia within its phenomenology. Our data speak to debates concerning the biological underpinnings of sexuality, to models of autism and synaesthesia, and to psychological and philosophical models of romantic love. or continua of sexual orientation are recognised in social, psychological, political and biological sciences. One orientation almost entirely absent from this research arena is objectum-sexuality OS; also known as objectophilia. For example, Eija-Riitta Berliner-Mauer has described her romantic attraction towards the Berlin Wall 1 and others have written similarly about their feelings towards a range of objects e.
Our background in synaesthesia 3 objectum sexuality causes, 4 and autism 56 led us to recognise potential features of both conditions from anecdotal descriptions given by OS individuals—and these features have also been noted by others 7. Although this earlier survey included no ificance tests or baselines, it is possible calculate the prevalence of autism within that OS group Synaesthesia gives rise to an unusual fusing of sensations—for example, experiencing a sense of colour when reading letters or s grapheme-colour synaesthesia Important for our purposes here, is that some forms of synaesthesia imbue inanimate objects with genders or personalities.
Hence people with object-personification synaesthesia 1516 might feel that their house-keys are female, or that their pocket watch is shy.
Other triggers are linguistic sequences such as letters and s e. These synaesthetic personifications have known neurological roots 1618 and are reminiscent of descriptions given anecdotally by OS individuals about the objects they are attracted towards. Given the potential overlap between OS, autism, and synaesthesia, our study is the first to explore the relationship among them, using empirical behavioural testing. In our study we tested 34 self-identified OS individuals and 88 controls, using questionnaires and objective measures related to OS, autism and synaesthesia. If OS is linked with autism, we predict ificantly higher rates of diagnosed autism in our OS group, compared to controls and population baselines 9.
We will also use the Autism Spectrum Quotient 19 AQ to measure autistic traits, and predict that the OS group will show ificantly higher autistic traits compared to controls.
We will also investigate a possible link between OS and synaesthesia, and make several predictions. If OS is linked with synaesthesia, we first predict that OS individuals should describe complex personality traits for their object-partners, similar to those found in object-personification synaesthesia 15 We therefore followed widely-accepted synaesthesia protocols 322 to determine whether OS individuals show the synaesthetic hallmark of consistency-over-time in the personalities they attribute to objects.
To do this, we first asked OS individuals whether they felt personifications in their object-partners i. In our test and retest, OS individuals described their object-partners using 44 personality adjectives e. This approach maps personality into five dimensions Openness to ExperienceContentiousnessExtraversionAgreeablenessNeuroticism 23 based on the Big-5 personality model If OS is linked with synaesthesia we also predict that OS objectum sexuality causes may show a more general synaesthetic phenotype, and therefore present with additional forms of synaesthesia.
Epidemiological studies show that multiple forms of synaesthesia tend to co-occur within the same individual 3.
For example, synaesthetes with grapheme-personification synaesthesia have ificantly elevated rates of grapheme-colour synaesthesia We therefore screened our participants for two additional forms of synaesthesia, using objective diagnostic tests for grapheme-personification synaesthesia 25 and grapheme-colour synaesthesia We chose grapheme-colour synaesthesia because it is the most widely tested and well-understood variant of synaesthesia and we chose grapheme-personification synaesthesia because it shows phenomenological similarities with object personification.
If OS is related to synaesthesia, we predict higher rates of these synaesthesias within OS individuals. In summary, if OS is linked with autism, we predict higher rates of autism diagnosis and autism traits in OS individuals, compared to population and control baselines. If OS is linked to synaesthesia, we predict that OS individuals will experience complex personality traits for their admired objects as found in object-personification synaesthesiaa high level of consistency when describing these personality traits as found in synaesthesia more broadlyand a higher prevalence of other synaesthesias grapheme-personification or grapheme-colour synaesthesia compared to population and control baselines.
We tested participants comprising 34 OS individuals 18 female, 5 male, 11 other; mean age OS is extremely rare and our study recruited the largest cohort of this population in the scientific literature to date. Power analyses showed that 20 OS participants and 50 controls would be sufficient to detect differences between two independent proportions e. Likewise, 23 OS participants and 59 controls would be sufficient for detecting mean differences objectum sexuality causes two independent groups e.
Here, a objectum sexuality causes effect size is considered reasonable given that we expect OS participants to score highly on tests of autism symptoms, and in consistency for object-personalities see below. OS individuals were recruited from online communities of individuals self-identifying as OS e. Controls were recruited from the University of Sussex community and participated for course credit.
The OS group were older than controls t Participants were tested via our online testing portal www. To avoid recruitment bias neither the advert nor information sheet mentioned synaesthesia or autism. Our study was approved by the Cross-Schools Science and Technology Research Ethics Committee at the University of Sussex and the study was conducted in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki. All participants provided their full informed consent prior to taking part in the study.
Participants completed the following tests in the order described further below :. Participants were also given the opportunity to provide any further details about their autism diagnosis in an optional text-box. Approximately half the questions are reverse coded. Items are scored 1 point if the participant records an autistic trait e. Scores can range from 0 to 50 with a score of 32 or above recognised as a strong indicator of likely autism Participants answering NO to this question are ased to the control group and are automatically taken to the next stage of study.
Participants answering YES are ased to the OS group and they completed several follow-up OS-related questions to be reported elsewhere. This diagnostic determines whether individuals experience personifications for non-human objects and whether they show the synaesthetic trait of consistency-over-time i.
In Part 2, all participants repeated the personality questionnaire a second time and this took place later within the same session; see below as a surprise retest. Twenty-three OS participants and 88 controls objectum sexuality causes both parts of this test. As in the test above, this diagnostic determines whether individuals experience personifications this time for graphemes and whether they are consistent over time a hallmark of grapheme-personification synaesthesia.
Participants were then asked to indicate whether their pre-existing personifications were for s, letters or both and if both, which was the strongest. Participants then completed a test of consistency in which they saw either s 0—9, or letters A-Z, according to their earlier response: i. For the purposes of our study all participants completed this test regardless of whether they indicated experiencing grapheme-personification synaesthesia or not.
During the consistency test, graphemes were shown one-by-one in a random order, and participants were required to rate the personality of each grapheme using an adjustable pie-chart of five personality descriptions imaginativethoroughoutgoingtrustinghandles stress well ; see Fig. Participants rated the relative contribution of each trait to the overall personality profile of the grapheme e. Each grapheme was displayed twice in a block de resulting in 20 trials for s i. The test generated two output measures, indicating how consistently participants described the personality or gender of their graphemes.
This indicated the degree to which the first set of descriptions were a predictor of the second set of descriptions as a measure of consistency. Synaesthetes were diagnosed as those scoring at or above the validated threshold for synaesthesia, which was again computed separately for personality ratings and gender ratings. Left panel shows an example trial from our grapheme-personification synaesthesia diagnostic.
Participants adjust the segments of the pie-chart to select the personality of the presented grapheme. Participants also used the Likert scale to describe a gender for each grapheme.
Right panel shows an example trial from the grapheme-colour synaesthesia diagnostic. Participants adjust the colour-picker to select the associated colour for each presented grapheme. In both cases left and right panels graphemes are presented twice in a test and retest and we calculate the synaesthetic measure of consistency-over-time. High consistency is the hallmark of synaesthesia. Its procedure is similar to the synaesthesia diagnostics above 25 except that it elicits colours for graphemes rather than personifications.
Participants responding NO are classified as non-synaesthetes objectum sexuality causes are not tested further following standard testing protocols 3 Participants responding YES specify whether they experience colours for s, letters or both, and in the subsequent consistency test they are shown whichever graphemes they reported.
In consistency testing, participants pair each grapheme with a colour, using an interactive colour-picker see Fig. Graphemes are each shown twice in a block-randomised de, and test-scores are an indication of the distance in colour space between each presentation of the same grapheme e.
Smaller scores represent smaller distances, hence greater consistency-over-time. Scores are averaged across all trials and standardised; following validated methods 333synaesthetes were diagnosed as those scoring within the recognised synaesthetic window i.
Tests were presented in the following order: Autism screening [Part 1], SOSQ, Object-personification [Part 1], grapheme-personification synaesthesia test, grapheme-colour synaesthesia test, Autism screening [Part 2], Object-personification [Part 2]. In this section, we ask whether OS individuals show higher autistic traits compared to controls.
All analyses here and throughout are two-tailed. Mean AQ scores for OS and control participants. Higher scores represent more autistic-like traits i. Error bars show standard errors of the means SEMs. Objectum sexuality causes addition to heightened AQ scores, 13 out of 34 OS participants OS individuals also had ificantly more diagnoses of autism compared to published epidemiological data from the general population 9 1. Note that all chi-square analyses here and throughout the manuscript are performed with the objectum sexuality causes conservative Yates continuity correction where expected cell counts fall below five observations.
Given our online methodology, we were not able to perform independent clinical autism assessments. We therefore ran additional analyses showing that even when we use more conservative methods for classifying participants as autistic, our remain the same. Our first additional analysis classified participants as autistic only if they satisfy two criteria: 1 they self-reported a formal diagnosis of autism as above AND 2 they gave further spontaneous information about their diagnosis via our optional text-box e.
Following this new autism classification, we continued to find ificantly higher rates of autism in our OS group 8 out of 34; i. This more conservative rate of autism in OS was again ificantly higher than published epidemiological data from the general population 9 1. Finally, we also analysed our AQ data and classified participants as autistic only if they scored above the recognised indicative threshold for autism i. Once again we found a ificant group difference: there were 10 out of 34 OS participants classified as autistic Moreover, rates of autism in the OS group were once again ificantly higher than published epidemiological data from the general population 1.
We first asked whether OS participants experience synaesthesia-like personalities from objects. We therefore analysed scores from the Multisense Test for Object-personification synaesthesia. Both groups were then given a surprise retest. Next, we investigated whether OS was related to a more generalized synaesthetic phenotype, by looking at whether OS individuals also have other variants of synaesthesia. Here we diagnosed grapheme-personification synaesthesia and grapheme-colour synaesthesia, using recognised protocols and ly validated thresholds 2231 We found higher rates of both types of synaesthesia in our OS group.
Considering first grapheme-personification synaesthesia, we found higher rates of synaesthesia in the OS group compared to controls although only in gender scores, see Table 1 ; we remind the reader that it is possible to diagnose grapheme-personification synaesthesia either for grapheme genders e. Table shows that the OS group had a higher prevalence of grapheme-personification synaesthesia for grapheme-genders but not grapheme-personalities. See Supplementary Information - Prevalence of grapheme-personification synaesthesia for further details regarding these prevalence estimates.
In addition to the above finding, we also found ificantly elevated rates of grapheme-colour synaesthesia, which was 14 times higher in OS individuals Finally, we also considered whether OS individuals might have synaesthesia simply because they may also have autism, given that synaesthesia and autism are co-morbid 612 But rates of grapheme-colour synaesthesia were still ificantly higher than controls even when considering only OS individuals who did not have autism Further above we have seen that OS individuals give personality traits for their object-partners that are consistent over time.
We point out that the high consistency in reports of personalities described by OS individuals for their object-partners were not simply some heightened ability to remember personality traits: OS individuals were no more consistent than controls when attributing personalities to letters or s revealed by a lack of group differences in prevalence for personality ratings during the grapheme-personification test.
This suggests that OS individuals are not better memorisers of personalities in general, but tend to have genuine object-personification synaesthesia, as well as elevated rates of both grapheme-personification synaesthesia for genders only and grapheme-colour synaesthesia. To date, only one other study 7 has addressed objectum sexuality OS and our research is the first to take an empirical behavioural approach in studying this form of sexual orientation. We recruited a group of individuals who self-identify as OS and a group of non-OS objectum sexuality causes.
Our study was motivated by the hypothesis that autism and synaesthesia i. We found a of ificant relationships between OS and synaesthesia.Objectum sexuality causes
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